Table of Contents

   Index
   Physical Resources
   Soil and Forest Resources
   Agricultural Patterns
   Mineral Resources
   Power Resources
   Industries
   Tourist Industry
   Political Divisions of Kashmir
   Kashmir - Poetry of Nature
   Major Ethnic Groups
   Download Book

Koshur Music

An Introduction to Spoken Kashmiri

Matrimonial

 
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Climate Patterns and Climatic Divisions

Climate Patterns

The territory of the State of Jammu and Kashmir lies between four degrees of latitude from 32.17 to 36.58 North. Within these 640 Kms. there is a sudden rise of altitude from 305 metres to 6910 metres above sea level. The State of Jammu and Kashmir, therefore, lies between the hot plains of the Jammu Province and coldest dry table-land of Ladakh. These territories are, as such, transitional in climate.

Weather conditions are different at different places. There are many causes of difference:

1. Relief is the main factor. Lofty mountains like the Pirpanjal, the Zanskar and the Karakoram check winds from blowing in thus moisture is stopped from entering the valleys by the lofly mountains.

2. The Monsoon winds in summer cause rain in the Outer Plains and the Outer Hills. But these winds can cross the Pirpanjal range only when they are very strong. In winter winds from the Mediterranean cause snow and rain in the Valley of Kashmir. Snow falls on the mountains which enclose the valley.

3. Forests influence winds, rainfall and temperature. The moisture laden winds cause rainfall in the forests on the hills making the temperature to fall in summer. Thus the climate of Pahalgam, Gulmarg etc. is comparatively milder than that of Srinagar or Sopore.

4. Altitude is also a factor. So the climate of the valley of Kashmir is comparatively milder than that of the Outer Plain that lie on a very low altitude. The rainfall also varies as the altitude rises.

Climate of Kashmir

The climate found in the zone of the Middle Mountains and the valleys enclosed is of a particular type. Altitude determines the degree of coolness and elevation the form of precipitation and summer temperature. Winter is cold and of long duration. When the monsoons are strong, rain is caused. In higher mountains round the valley of Kashmir, winter is very cold and there is snow-fall. Summer is very short and milder.

The climate in the Valley of Kashmir has its own peculiarities. Winter is very cold. It lasts from November to March. During these months strong winds bring snow and rain from the Mediterranean depressions. These come over from Iran and Afghanistan. Spring begins after 15th of March when rain falls heavily. It causes landslides. But for sowing crops this rain is extremely useful. Rainfall in July and August is as high as 70% and with summer temperature, it causes discomfort. The lakes and waterways make the atmosphere damp and oppressive. The entire valley is covered with a haze that hides the surrounding mountains from view.

The seasons are marked with sudden change and the year is divided into six seasons of two months each.
 

Spring  March 15 to May 15.
Summer  May 15 to July 15.
Rainy Season  July 15 to Sept. 15.
Autumn  Sept. 15 to Nov. 15.
Winter  Nov. 15 to Jan 15.
Ice Cold  Jan. 15 to March 15.

From December 24 to March 8 temperature is often below zero. Strong winds blow from south and southeast. It snows during winter and there are thick black clouds in the sky.

Annual rainfall of the valley recorded is about 75 cms. It rains in July and August and also in March and April . August is the warmest month. Temperature rises to 85 deg. F. January is the coldest month. Temperature falls down to below zero. Longest sunshine hours are in September, October and November.

  December has 80% humidity which is the highest and May has 71% which is the lowest. In July atmosphere has a pressure of 62.68 cms.

 

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