and Soil Types
is influenced by climate, rainfall soil and
altitude. Since these factors vary as the altitude
rises from the outer plains of Jammu Province to
the loftiest mountain ranges of the Inner
Himalayas, it is but natural that the vegetation
should vary from the Inner Himalayas to the middle
mountains and the outer plains of Jammu region.
are one of the most important resources of Jammu
and Kashmir. Spread over 2,236 sq. kms. of the
demarcated area forests accounts for 20% of the
total geographical area of the state on this side
of the Line of Control. More than 99% of forest
area is confined to the province of Jammu &
Kashmir only, with largest area of 5848 sq. kms.
in district of Doda and smallest are of 481 sq.
kms. in the district of Budgam. Over 19,236 sq.
kms. is under coniferous softwood (Pine) and 946
sq. kms. under non-coniferous softwood. In the
coniferous category.Fir accounts for 3355 sq. kms.,
Kail for 1874 sq. kms., Chir for 1773 sq. kms. and
Deodar for 1122 sq. kms. Forests require abundance
of moisture in the soil. So they are found in the
areas where there is sufficient rainfall or along
the banks of the rivers where sufficient water is
available. In the State of Jammu and Kashmir
forests are mainly found where annual rainfall is
about 100 cms. However, scrub forests are found,
where rainfall is even less than100 cms.
valley of Kashmir has deciduous vegetation. The
Chinar, Poplar, Deodar, Fir, Pine, Kail, Partal,
Mulbery, Walnut and other fruit trees grow
throughout the valley. Baramulla and Anantnag
districts have respectively 71% and 60% of their
areas under forests.
forests in the valley provide timber and
fire-wood. Grassy meadows in the forest provide
fodder for the cattle. Medicinal herbs such as
balladona, hyoseyamus, digitalis, menthol,
artemisis, polygola, podophyllum, rubus, trilliu,
hops and kuth.grow in these forests. Industries
like paper, joinery sports goods, furniture, wood
carving, herbal drugs, silk industry, manufacture
of agricultural implements and construction of
railway sleepers depend on these forests.
thick undergrowth in the forests stores up rain
water and allows it to flow slowly and that is why
rivers that have their sources in the forests
donot run dry in the dry seasons and check floods
during the rainy season.
these forests are situated the famous health
resourts like Gulmarg, Pahalgam, Sonamarg,
Achhabbal, Verinag and Kokarnag etc.
Dependent on Forests
Match Industry. Poplar wood available in the
valley of Kashmir is mainly used by this industry.
A large Government Match Factory has been
established at Baramula since long. Its annual
production is 60,000 gross boxes of matches.
The wood of poplar and willow trees is used
for making cricket bats and mulberry wood is used
for making hockey sticks.
Sentonin Factory in Baramula manufactures
sentonin from artimisia.This drug is useds used as
a helminthecide which is exported to foreign
Rifle Half-Wrought Factory in Baramula
manufactures walnut wood rifle-butts.
on different kinds of forest herbs is carried in
the Regional Research Laboratories, one at Jammu
and the other at Burzala, Srinagar. The Council of
Scientific and Industrial Research uses raw
materialfrom these forests for making medicines.
State Government has established two large joinery
mills at Pompore (Kashmir) and at Bari Brahmana
trees grow in abundance in Kashmir. Walnut wood is
suitable for wood carving and Kashmiri artisans
are expert wood carvers. The carved goods are
exported to foreign countries also.