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Articles from Pre-1998 Issues 

Kashmir Shaivism

by R. K. Sapru

Hymn to Shiva Shakti

Param Shiva, Shiva Shakti, thou art the
mother divine. Grant me thy devotion, remove
all obstacles and show thy might.

Thou art the transcendental super energy
of the nature of absolute bliss. Thou art the root
energy of the universe and the ordinary nature
of the embodied.

Thou art the power of universal ambition,
all encompassing knowledge, again thou art the
universal power of execution.

In the form of Brahma, though art
responsible for the creation of the world; in the
form of Vishnu, the world is sustained by thee
and again thou take the form of world destroying
power.

In the garb of Maya, Shiva, the ultimate
Truth is concealed by thee, but in the form of
Divine grace thou revealth the ultimate truth
(Shiva). Again thou art the independent
sovereign power.

Thou art the Energy in the form of three
Gunas or mental moods, and thou the ruling
power above these Gunas. Thou art the
conscious power of Shiva.

Manifestation of the mind, intellect and
ego are the wonders of your power. Thou art the
all limiting power.

Thou art the five sense powers, the five
powers of action. Again thou art the fivefold
prana (vital force) in the human being.

Thou art the five subtle and the five
gross elements, and thou the power in a mystic
sound formula.

Thou art the four stages of manifestation
of articulate speech. Again thou art the source
of primal sound 'OM'.

Thou art the concealed serpent power at
the base of the spine. Thou art responsible for
her play in the middle sushumna channel.

Thou art the very form of nectar in the
spiritual centre at the crown of the head. Again
thou art all effulgence.

Manifestation of form out of formless is
thy miraculous power. Thou art knowable
power.... My adoration to thee.

The Chart of Cosmology according to Kashmir Shavism

SPECIAL FEATURES

PARAM SHIVA
a) Supreme self of Pure consciousness surveys itself.
b) It is transcendental and extra cosmic reality.
c) This pure SUN of consciousness called Param Shiva has non-relational and immediate awareness of I. 'I' and 'the other' aspects of consciousness are in indistinguishable unity.

SHIVA
a) SHIVA is the changeless principle of all changes.
b) By its shining everything else shines.
c) Inter-cosmic, Immanent Reality, supporting dynamic energy in the background.
d) Container of everything.

SHAKTI
a) The dynamic energy aspect of Shiva as his I-conciousness.
b) If Shiva is the container, what is contained therein is his Shakti.
c) The sovereign Power to create.
d) Absolute bliss is her essential nature.

SADASHIVA
a) The Sadashiva has power of the will to create.
b) In its experience as 'I' am this. The 'other' side, i.e., the universe to be, is quite hazy.

ISHWARA
a) The power of knowledge is prominent here as 'the other' side of 'this am I' consciousness is quite distinct.

SHUDDHAVIDYA
a) The power of assuming every form.
b) 'I' and the 'other' are quite distinct and prominent but 'this' is still felt as part of the self.

MAYA
a) The principe of delimitation; contracting infinite into finite.
b) The make-believe power of Nature, excluding 'the other' side of experience from the 'I' side of universal experience.
c) Maya draws a veil over the self owing to which he forgets his self. The five products of Maya are (i) Kala (ii) Vidya (iii) Raga (iv) Kaal (v) Niyati.

PURUSHA and PRAKRITI
Shiva under the influence of Maya and her Kanchukas loses his universal nature, and becomes a limited individual soul. Subjective side of Shiva under the influence of Maya is Purusha and its objective side is Prakriti.


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