has thrown personalities of eminence in all fields.
They have been acknowledged in whole of the
country. Some names are given below:
author of Yogadarshan. Authority on Ayurveda.
From Gogard (Guddar) Kulgam.
Grammar. From Kachhajkot, near Awantipora.
Shivmat. Around last part of eighth century.
Vasugupta. Ninth century
philosopher. Ninth century.
Lakshmangupta. One of the best authorities on
Shaiva philosophy and various branches of
Sanskrit literature e.g. rhetoric
Abhinavgupta. Scholar of late eleventh
Grammarian and author of Kusumanjli.
critic. Author of Dhanyalok.
Author of Rajatarangini.
philosopher. 12th century.
philosopher. From Habba Kadal.
of Katha Sarit Sagar. Ninth century scholar.
||A great poet.
husband of Arnimal.
poet & Shaiva philosopher.
|Krishen Joo Razdan:
poet. From Vanpoh.
|Janki Nath Madan:
Bhagvadgeeta into Urdu.
|Dina Nath Madan:
Bhagvadgeeta into Urdu verse.
From the above list,
we are presently taking below two for detailed
“There is no
record to tell us of the life of the poet, scholar
Kalhana, the author of Rajatarangini”, says
Stein. Facts about his person and contemporary
life have been gleaned from his narration by patient
Kalhana was born in
the beginning of 12th Century. His father Champaka
was a Kashmiri nobleman, who held the office
of ‘the lord of the gate’ - Dwarpal or
commander of the frontier defences during the reign
of the ill-fated King Harsha (1089-1101 AD).
Kalhana speaks admiringly of his father. Kalhana’s
ancestors were devout Shaivites. His father
was a worshipper of Nandikeshwar, sacred to
Shiva. Kalhana was an admirer of expositors of
Kashmiri Shaivism [MAS pp 8], for instance
Bhatta Kalatta. Though greatly attached to Shaivism,
he equally held Budhism in high regard. He has
recorded the names of those royal personages who
made equal endowments to Budhist viharas, stupas and
Shiva or Vishnu temples.
Kalhana was an
accomplished poet, though there is no Information
about his f.mp3al education. However he had
carefully studied the historical poem of his
fellow countrymen Bilhan, as also Bana’s Harsha
Charita - describing the exploits of King
Harshavardhana of Kanauj and Thanesar. He had
also deep knowledge of Mahabharata and
Ramayana. It has almost universally been admitted
that Kalhana possesed the competence of an
impartial historian. He does not seem to have wished
for royal patronage at the cost of truth. He does
not share his father’s affection for his
royal master, Harsha.
definitely known about the date of birth of
Kshemendra, the well known Poet, Historian,
Rhetorician and Humourist. Almost every important
branch of Sanskrit literature has been
enriched by this versatile genius. It is presumed
that he was born during the period when King
Ananta Raja (1028-1063 AD) ruled Kashmir.
Sanskrit was the
language of the elite during Kshemendra’s times.
Kshemendra received his education from the
famous scholars and teachers like Gangaka,
Abhinavgupta & Somapada. Abhinavgupta was the
famous Acharya and scholar of Shaiva Doctrine.
Kshemendra himself was a Vaishnava though his father
Prakashendra was a Shiva devotee. Some of the famous
works of Kshemendra are Dash Avtar Charit
Kaveya, Desh Updesha, N.mp3ala, Loka Prakasha, Samay
Matrika etc. He shortened the famous work Maha
Bhaarat of one lakh shalokas under the title of Maha
Bharat Manjri in 10655 shalokas only. He
reduced Gunadeya’s seven lakh shalokas Brihat
Katha to 7500 shalokas titled Brihat Katha Manjri
and 24000 shalokas of Ramayana to 6391
shalokas. His two works Rajavali and Nripavali are
not traceable. According to Dr. Keeth,
non-availability of Rajavali is a great loss to
Sanskrit literature. Kshemendra’s work on
Budha’s philosophy Budhavandana Kalpalata written
in 1052 AD is well known.