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Information Digest
Volume 1
Reprint Edition March 2001

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Lalla-Ded Educational and Welfare Trust

Table of Contents

Lalla-Ded Educational Trust
Project Zaan
Information Digest - Vol. 1


Eminent Personalities

Kashmir has thrown personalities of eminence in all fields. They have been  acknowledged in whole of the country. Some names are given below:

Patanjali Grammarian, author of Yogadarshan. Authority on Ayurveda. From Gogard (Guddar) Kulgam.
Mamtacharya Poet and Reviewer.
Kait Sanskrit Grammar. From Kachhajkot, near Awantipora. 
Uvat: Vedic scholar. 
Rudrat: Poet. 
Vaman: Grammarian.
Vagbhat: Poet and Physician. 
Charak: Famous Ayurveda authority. 
Baman:  Poet. 
Acharya Vasugupta: Founder of Shivmat. Around last part of eighth century. 
Narayan Bhat: Shaiva philosopher. 
Kallat:         .  Disciple of Vasugupta. Ninth century
Somananda: Shaiva philosopher. Ninth century. 
Acharya Abhinavgupta: Son of Lakshmangupta. One of the best authorities on  Shaiva philosophy and various branches of Sanskrit literature e.g.  rhetoric  and poetics
Kshemraj:  Disciple of Abhinavgupta. Scholar of late eleventh century. 
Jagddhar Bhat Poet, Grammarian and author of Kusumanjli. 
Ratnakar:   Poet. 
Anand Vardhan: Poet and critic. Author of Dhanyalok.
Kshemendra:  Poet and Satirist. Historian. 
Kalhana: Historian. Author of Rajatarangini.
Jonraja: Historian. Fifteenth century. 
Shrivara:  Historian. 
Prajya Bhatta:  Historian. 
Jairath: Shaiva philosopher. 12th century. 
Shivopadhyaya: Shaiva philosopher. From Habba Kadal.
Mankh: Dictionary compiler. 
Somdeva:  Writer. Author of Katha Sarit Sagar. Ninth century scholar. 
Abhinand: A great poet. 
Narhari: Reviewer. 
Dayaram Ganjoo Persian poet.
Munshi Bhawanidas Kachroo: Persian poet, husband of Arnimal.
P.mp3anand:  Great Kashmiri poet & Shaiva philosopher.
Prakashram Kurigam: Author of Ramavtarcharit, poet. 
Krishen Joo Razdan:  Great Saint poet. From Vanpoh. 
Birbal Kachroo: Historian. 
Janki Nath Madan: Translated Bhagvadgeeta into Urdu. 
Dina Nath Madan: Translated Bhagvadgeeta into Urdu verse.

From the above list, we are presently taking below two for detailed  description:


“There is no record to tell us of the life of the poet, scholar Kalhana, the  author of Rajatarangini”, says Stein. Facts about his person and contemporary  life have been gleaned from his narration by patient research.

Kalhana was born in the beginning of 12th Century. His father Champaka was a  Kashmiri nobleman, who held the office of ‘the lord of the gate’ - Dwarpal or  commander of the frontier defences during the reign of the ill-fated King Harsha  (1089-1101 AD). Kalhana speaks admiringly of his father. Kalhana’s ancestors  were devout Shaivites. His father was a worshipper of Nandikeshwar, sacred to  Shiva. Kalhana was an admirer of expositors of Kashmiri Shaivism [MAS pp 8], for  instance Bhatta Kalatta. Though greatly attached to Shaivism, he equally held  Budhism in high regard. He has recorded the names of those royal personages who  made equal endowments to Budhist viharas, stupas and Shiva or Vishnu temples.

Kalhana was an accomplished poet, though there is no Information about his  f.mp3al education. However he had carefully studied the historical poem of his  fellow countrymen Bilhan, as also Bana’s Harsha Charita - describing the exploits of  King Harshavardhana of Kanauj and Thanesar. He had  also deep knowledge of  Mahabharata and Ramayana. It has almost universally been admitted that Kalhana  possesed the competence of an impartial historian. He does not seem to have wished  for royal patronage at the cost of truth. He does not share his father’s  affection for his royal master, Harsha.


Nothing is definitely known about the date of birth of Kshemendra, the well  known Poet, Historian, Rhetorician and Humourist. Almost every important branch of  Sanskrit literature has been enriched by this versatile genius. It is presumed  that he was born during the period when  King Ananta Raja (1028-1063 AD) ruled  Kashmir.

Sanskrit was the language of the elite during Kshemendra’s times. Kshemendra  received his education from the famous scholars and teachers like Gangaka,  Abhinavgupta & Somapada. Abhinavgupta was the famous Acharya and scholar of Shaiva  Doctrine. Kshemendra himself was a Vaishnava though his father Prakashendra was a Shiva devotee. Some of the famous works of Kshemendra are Dash Avtar Charit  Kaveya, Desh Updesha, N.mp3ala, Loka Prakasha, Samay Matrika etc. He shortened the  famous work Maha Bhaarat of one lakh shalokas under the title of Maha Bharat  Manjri in 10655 shalokas only. He reduced Gunadeya’s seven lakh shalokas Brihat  Katha to 7500 shalokas titled Brihat Katha Manjri and 24000 shalokas of Ramayana  to 6391 shalokas. His two works Rajavali and Nripavali are not traceable.  According to Dr. Keeth, non-availability of Rajavali is a great loss to Sanskrit  literature. Kshemendra’s work on Budha’s philosophy Budhavandana Kalpalata written  in 1052 AD is well known.


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