Geography of Jammu and Kashmir State

Geologists believe that about ten crore years have passed when Kashmir Valley which was once a lake called Satisar, the lake of goddess Sati, came into its present form.

For hundreds of million years Kashmir Valley remained under Tethya sea and the high sedimentary-rock hills seen in the valley now were once under water. Geologists have come to believe that Kashmir Valley was earlier affected by earthquakes. Once there was such a devastating earthquake that it broke open the mountain wall at Baramulla. and the water of the Satisar lake flowed out leaving behind lacustrine mud on the margins of the mountains known as karewas. Thus came into existence the oval but irregular Valley of Kashmir. The karewas being in fact the remnants of this lake confirm this view. The karewas are found mostly to the west of the river Jhelum where these table-lands attain a height of about 380 meters above the level of the Valley. These karewas protrude towards the east and look like tongue-shaped spurs with deep ravines.

Ancient legends and popular traditions say that Samdimat Nagar, capital of the kingdom of Sundra Sena, was submerged as a result of an earthquake, and the water that filled the area formed the Wular Lake, the largest fresh water lake in India. The oldest igneous rocks are still found at Shankaracharya hill. When the whole Valley of Kashmir was under water this hillock was the first piece of dry land lying in the form of an igneous island.

Excerpts from:
Geography of Jammu & Kashmir State
by Dr. A. N. Raina
Radha Krishan Anand & Co.
Pacca Danga, Jammu

Physical Resources

Geologists believe that about ten crore years have passed when Kashmir Valley which was once a lake called Satisar, the lake of goddess Sati, came into its present form.

Soil and Forest Resources

Vegetation is influenced by climate, rainfall soil and altitude. Since these factors vary as the altitude rises from the outer plains of Jammu Province to the loftiest mountain ranges of the Inner Himalayas

Agricultural Patterns

Irrigation plays an important role in the agriculture of the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Our State does not receive rain throughout the year and sometimes it is quite insufficient and it is neither uniform nor certain.

Mineral Resources

The Geology of the territories of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh have been studied in some detail by R. Lydekkar.

Power Resources

A hydro-electric power corporation has been set-up to mobilise resources for effective implementation of various projects.The total power generation in the state sector is 259mw.


Industrial complexes have been established at Rangreth, Khunmoh and Doabagh in Kashmir where the units for the manufacture of TV sets, radios, electronic clocks, stablizers, tape recorders, jewels for watches, joinery articles, automobile batteries, oxygen etc.

Tourist Industry

Tourism is one of the major industries of the State. This industry provides employment to lakhs of people directly and indirectly Hotliers, house boat owners, transporters, travel-agencies

Political Divisions of Kashmir

In the year 1947 the State of Jammu and Kashmir was invaded by Pakistan. India and Pakistan fought for more than a year when cease fire was agreed upon on 1st of January, 1949 and the fighting stopped.

Kashmir - Poetry of Nature

Set like a jewelled crown on the map of India, Kashmir is a many-faceted diamond, changing its character with the seasons always extravagantly beautiful.

Major Ethnic Groups

The history of peopling of Jammu and Kashmir State is a record of constant impulses of immigration from the north-west, west, south and east directions.

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