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Destruction and Injustice
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Destruction and Injustice

The  Tribulations   Of   Kashmiri   Pandits


A Brief Chronology of Kashmiri History

From the 14th Century to Independence

Rajeev Pandit

 Bulbul Shah, the Sufi saint, introduced Islam into Kashmir in the early 14th cent.

 Dulucha, a fierce Mongol warrior, invaded the Kashmir Valley to practically end Hindu rule with an army of 60,000.

 Under Sikandar, in 1389, Islam spread quickly and led to the persecution of Hindus until only eleven Hindu families were left.

 Akbar brought Mughal control over Kashmir in 1587 which by and large led to a fair and prosperous period.

 Under Aurangzeb, Mughal satraps began exploitation of Kashmiri Hindus once again as he lost control of the empire.

 From 1752 to 1819, Pathans from Afghanistan ruled Kashmir which defined its most tyrannical period and led to indiscriminate killing of mostly Hindus and Shias.

 The Sikhs under Maharajah Ranjit Singh defeated the Afghans in 1819 and ruled for 27 years.

 The British defeated the Sikhs and under the Treaty of Amritsar claimed Kashmir.  However, in 1848 they quickly sold it to Maharajah Gulab Singh, the Hindu Dogra ruler, for Rs. 7.5 million.

 The Dogra rulers consolidated and somewhat modernized Kashmir to end its relative isolation by developing roads, introducing the telegraph, and starting colleges. 

 In the 1930's, a legislative assembly along with political parties were established in Kashmir.  Sheikh Abdullah emerged as the popular political leader and founded the National Conference party (also known as the Muslim Conference).

 In 1947, Maharajah Hari Singh, the Hindu ruler, acceded Kashmir to India with Sheikh Abdullah's blessing.

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