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An Introduction to Spoken Kashmiri



Kashmiri Pandits: Originators of Pahari-Kangra School of Art

by P. N. Kachru

"The Migrants"- this is the calling through which the authorities, the media, the publicity experts have stamped and marketed us, the dispossessed and hunted minority community of Kashmir.  Being an artist and a man of culture I ponder over this calling differently.  It is the migration that has given rise to the world cultures.  Migrations have been the very basis and the reason for interaction between the races and tribes which sauntered on the surface of the most ancient soils.  It is through migrations that different cultures, beliefs and philosophies interacted, got enriched, intermingled and mixed-up into the cauldron of commingled interaction through which human culture developed and turned the humankind worthy of calling itself civilised.  The mighty drama of migratory comminglement of the three earliest sister civilisations, nourished the Indo-Mesopotamian culture.  The massive migrations from the North, seeking warmer pastures, resulted in Indo-Aryan or Indo-Germanic culture that gave birth to vedic and the Zendic cultures.  The great Indo-Bactro-Grecian culture that mixed-up and thrived in North-Western India and was responsible for the evolution of richest movements known as Gandhara and Mathura Schools which were destined to thrive into the golden age of Guptas.  This cultural movement was responsible for infiltration and enrichment of North-India, which culminated into the aesthetic pinnacles of Kashmir School by establishing, now internationally known, the Wushker Baroque.  These powerful trends were carried deeply by artists of Kashmir to little and greater Tibets, Central Asia, Mongolia and China.

Kashmir also had its share of migration-in and migration-out of various hordes, tribes and communities.  The compromise of Nila with the migratory Kashypa and the regular combined expeditions towards North for the massacre and annihilation of Pishachas over the desert of Takiamakan; twice the destruction of Poomadishtan, the ancient city of Srinagar, by the Toonganees who were the ferocious crossbreed of Mongols and Chinese women, all these are the wellestablished facts of the cross-cultures of our history.

In recent and past history too, Kashmir had to pass through convulsive traumas brought in by fanatic converts of Mongol breed that led to the mass exodus of Brahmins, not once, but several times during the past centuries for adhering to their faith and philosophy.  In such migrations there were some talented sculptors and painters who for centuries, had been responsible in establishing the Kashmir School of Sculpture and post-Gupta Schools of Pala Styles in Painting and were involved in spreading the movement to Tibet and Central Asian regions.  Under the severe threat of proslytisation, and under the fear of being dubbed as creators of Idolatory, many artists it seems migrated for their safety into the neighbouring principalities of Himachal Pradesh.  It was in this region of outer Himalayas where the Kashmir Schools of Arts thrived again and gave rise to gorgeous tapestry of art that became internationally known as Pahari movements, culminating into renowned Kangra Kalam or Kangra School of Painting.

This renaissance of Pahari culture was a post Moghul phenomena when the most of the Himachal Princedoms and states could independently look after their principalities.  Most of the princes who had to be in attendance to the Moghul Court and had to eke out the resources of their states in order to cater to the whimsical demands of the monarch and also, had to fill the imperial coffers.  This not only reduced the states to penury and poverty but also created local cultural vacuum.  Most of the artistic talents hovered round the imperial court for seeking recognition and prosperity.  This cultural exodus did a great disservice to the then leading northern schools.  The artists got detached from their respective tradition, trend and locale and had to be subservient to the moods and methods of the monarch, besides reducing their talents to mere eulogy and falsehood.  With the disintegration of the formality of the figures and the division of picture Imperial rule the Rajas and the Princes reverted to spaces-all these qualities were imposed with their principalities to reorganise their home-rule.  The cultural scene of the Himachal principalities again . reverberated and started rejuvenating amongst its milleu and methods and traditions which we vitalised and reinterpreted by the Kashmir Movement.  Thus the post Moghul vaccum was filled and augmented with the rich Baroque introduced by a talented fugitive Kashmiri artist family.

This family of Rajanaka (Razdan or Raina) Brahmins swept the entire region with their genius and were responsible for the introduction of one of the most romantic movements in fine art in almost all the principalities of jasrota, Basohli, Guler, Jummu, Chamb, Noorpur and Kangra.  The family swept, influenced and led the movement from 1658 to the end of 19th century in almost all the centres of artactivity and enjoyed favourable position with various Rajas of the Pahari principalities.

Pandit Seu (Shiv) Raina was the ancestor of this family who, it is presumed, left Kashmir under the threat of forced conversion, sometime in mid 17th century (1660 AD) and settled in Guler during the reign of Raja Dalip Singh and Bikram Singh.  Elucidates Mr. M. S. Randhawa (I.  C. S.) "Proselytism to Islam was at its height during the last years of the reign of Aurangzeb.  In the last quarter of the 17th century and the first quarter of the 18th century a number of Kashmiri Brahmins migrated from Kashmir to Kangra valley to seek sanctury in the courts of the Rajas of Kangra Hill States.  It is very likely that Pandit Seu was one of them".  Even now, as witnessed during the research on the subject, it has been found that there are a number of families of Kashmiri Brahmins, particularly Rainas, who have settled in Haripur Guler as well as in some villages in Tehsil Palampur.  The family's origin has been confirmed repeatedly through their initials on various paintings done by Pandit Seu and two of his renowned painter sons Manak (Mana) and Nainsukh (Nana) who mostly impress their name prefixed with 'Pandit' and suffixed with 'Raina' or 'Rajanaka'.

Pandit Seu Raina founded and introduced the "pre-Kangra" style in Guier under the princely patronage of Raja Dulip Singh.  The style richly vibrated with an amalgam of Pahari folk and Kashmiri Pala Style.  The static attitude of forms, the solidity and I decorative brilliance of colours, which imparted the tribal passion, energy, vehemence and depth of thoughtfulness in the paintings.  These qualities are basically the elements of Kashmir School which are primarily responsible for the powerful sprouting of Basohli, and which, it seems, Pandit Seu and his two genius sons, Manak and Nainsukh, inculcated under the Patronage of Basohli Raja.  As recorded, the most regular and frequent movement of Pandit Seu and his sons between Basohli and Guler do indicate that the father and sons must have been working simultaneously in Basohh and Guier, as the two centres are very near to each other.  Besides, the interaction of influences must have worked through the past centuries, because the town has been an important stoppage on the trade route between Kashmir and Punjab and rest of India; and also through Raja Amrit Pal (1757-1776) who was a reputed lover of art and culture.

The early quarter of twentieth century regenerated the discovery of these movements. particularly Basohli paintings which have become much sought after and fabulously priced pieces of art.  Incidentally, it was by sheer chance that a sizeable collection of Basohh came as a valued share to our State.

In fact, with Pandit Seu's entry into Raja Dulip Singh's atelier a complete change took place in the outlook of the workshop and brought into practice the style popularly known as "Pre-Kangra Kalani".  Later on, the style seems to have spread effectively to other states, but it was most effectively pursued in Culer, Basholi and Jammu.  Subject wise, Pandit Seu seemed to have invested his genius in portraitures, which could successfully maintain the pictorial qualities of vertical projection and attainment of dimensions by juxtaposition and interspersing of forms and surfaces over his canvas.  Some of his highly technical and dexterous portrait studies are luckily salvaged and preserved in various museums and collections.  Notable of them are the portrait sketches of his two sons Manak and Nainsukh the famous standard bearers of the movement.  While he was in the employ of Raja Duhp Singh of Guler, Pandit Seu had done some of the masterly portrait studies superimposed with highly sensitive and linear brushwork; such as Mian Gopal Singh of Guler playing chess (Chandigarh Museum), formerly in the collection of Guler Darbar; "A Seated Courtier" (Victoria and Albert Museum London); "Raja Bishan Singh of Guler" (in the National Museum, New Delhi) and again 'Raja Bishan Singh', presently in the collection of late Sir Cowasji Jahangir, Bombay, the renowned patron of the modem Indian Art movements.  Besides, the portrait of 'Raja Bikram Singh of Guler' ' performing pooja, and a 'Battle Scene" (Chandigarh Museum), the "Dancing Darveshes" (in Lahore Museum).  All these are the subjects of a deeper study and appreciation for aesthetics.  The frozen attitudes of hands, the solidity and formality of the figures and the division of the picture spaces- all these qualities, as already mentioned, are the qualities and basic elements of Kashmir School.

The three generations of Seu Raina spearheaded the fusion of Basohli and Baroque to the final flowering of the new movement that culminated in Kangra School.  This transformation was the work of a single family of influential artists who originated from Kashmir The family worked at several hill centres.  Guier is the centre for this technical development where the family of Pandit Seu settled in its initial stage.  Seu's son Nainsukh is the best known and the most 'irmovative".  He was employed by Raja Balwant Singh of fasrota (1724-1763).  After Balwant Singh's death in 1763, Nainsukh moved to Basholi where his elder brother Manaku was working and was practising and propagating the new style.  One of Nainsukh's sons was working in the court of Raj Singh (1764-1794) the ruler of Chamba.

The ultimate blooming of the Kangra style under the patronage of Raja Sansar Chand (1775-1823) was piloted by the third generation of Pandit Seu's dynasty.  It was here that the lyrical Guler style reached a high point in the Love themes of Kangra Kalam.  This subject and theme were from the love poems from the Rasikapriya of Keshav Das, the court poet of Raja Madhukar Shah (1580-1601) of Central India.  The Nayak and Nayika in the Rasikapriya are Krishna and Radha, the ideal love symbols of God and soul.  "Geet Govinda" series and 'Bhagwat Purana" also were the themes of this movement.

Geet-Govinda of the Vashnavite poet jaideva has achieved its passionate excellence through the master pieces created by the renowned painter Manaku, the eldest son of Pandit Seu.  Poet Jaideva was the court-poet of King Lakshmana Sena of Bengal where from the Pala-Sena movement of the Gupta's laid a marked influence on Kashmir SchoolBesides, as typical of the nature of an artist, Manaku was inspired by the poet's weaving into his songs an eroticism of fascinating sensuous imageries which make the poems throb with passion and above all the word-music which flows like a murmuring brook gushing in a verdant forest.  The rich imageries, the pen-pictures of landscape and the treatment of various states of love became a treasure and a rich tapestry for artist to draw upon.  The artist's technical excellence, aesthetic sensitivity and emotional vibrations were idealised through the expression of his lyrical drawings, throbbing colours and quiet landscape locales.  Some examples of the most romantic compositions of jaidev and their subsequent emotionally charged transformation by Manaku are worthy of high contemplation : "Oh spouse of the cowherd, caressing passionately her swelling breasts, proceeds to sing the Panchama Raga.  "It is a moonlight night almost at daybreak.  Birds are still roosting on the trees.  Krishna stands caressing the Gopi (Radha) while the earliest pink specks of the morn have touched the distant peaks across the meadow.  Krishana says :" The hair is disarranged by the tossing of tresses, their cheeks bear drops of perspiration, the lustre of her red lips is diinmed, the glory of her swelling breasts defeat the lustre of the pearl necklace, she is hiding now her breasts and her privacy with her hands.  She is looking at me bashfully and though disarranged, is spreading the light of love." Manaku's rendering - It is a lush green composition of undulating meadow skirted by a brook and overshadowed by a grove under which she (Radha) is poised in helpless nude condition besides Krishna.  The excellence of mastery over human anatomy coupled with delicacy of body undulations and ebb-and-flow of curvatures is the last word that Manaku has simplified and translated through the simplicity of form.

The two sets.of Geet-Govinda by Manaku- One painted in Basholi Kalam (1730) and the other in Kangra style- seemed to have raged into controversy in the columns of modem art criticism.  It was finally resolved that Manaku, while in the employ of the Basholi Court in early eighteenth century, painted the Basholi set under that influence.  This set was in the collection of Lahore Museum which I studied in 1946-47.  The second set of Geet-Govinda painted in Kangra style represents the most exalted and final stages of sophistication which Manaku achieved through his experimentation with his techniques and observations.  The throbbing and sumptuous colour, controlled but expressive draughtsmanship and the lively set-up of the landscape had established the unique standard for Manaku's compositions.  These paintings are supposed to have been painted by Manaku in Guler period of 1760-1770.  At some later time this set sppears to have reached the court of Maharaja Samsar Chand of Kangra and later to Tehri Garhwal as the dowry of the two daughters of Sansar Chand who were married into Tehri Garhwal family.  It was simply the genius of Manaku who could establish the Basohli Kalam and then evolve through it Kangra Kalam wherein he displayed all the aesthetic sensitivities and sensibilities.

Another controversy erupted between the well known art historian Karl Khandalvala and the researcher of Pahari movement Mr. M. S. Randhava; the former claiming that the name Manaku of the Sanskrit verse appearing in the reverse side of the Basholi Geet-Govinda collection, was actually the name of the noble lady and not of the artist who is supposed to have painted the collection.  Mr. Khandalavala's plea was that the name does not appear as Manak but as Manaku sounding it to be a female name.  However, the controvesy was settled by late Dr. Raghuvira, the well-known Sanskrit Scholar, who translated and interpreted the two identical colophons appearing on both the BashOli and Kangra styles.  The Sanskrit colophon appears as given below :

Dr. Raghuvira analyses the two last lines in the following manner : Vyarcayad = caused to be composed; aja bhakta = the devotee of Aja (the unhorn, Vishnu); Manaku = through Manaku; Chitrakartra = the artist; Vicitram = characterised by; Lalita = a delicate; Lipi = brush; Geet-Govindacitram = the painting of Geet-Govinda.

He translates the whole couplet thus; 'In the Vikrama year corresponding to the moon, the mountains, the gems and the sages, viz.  V. S. 1787 and 1730 A. D. a devotee of Aja, caused this painting of the Geet-Govinda, characterized by a delicate brush, to be painted by Manaku, the artist".  He adds further the literal meaning of the whole verse thus: "In the year 1787 VS (1730 AD), Malini, noted for her qualities of discrimination and judgment, and who prized her character as her principal wealth, who was a devotee of the Immortal One (Vishnu), had a pictorial version of Geet-Govinda in beautiful and varied script composed by the painter Manaku".  He clarifies, further, that 'Manak' or 'Manaku' is a male name in the hills, and is never used as a female name.  The female name is 'Manako', 'Gulabo' and so on.  While pointing to the grammatic principal and the gender of its Agent, Gopi Krishna Kanoria, scholar and aesthete, clears the confusion in an easy manner, 'Manaku', the principal and its agent 'Chitrakartra' is enough to establish the masculinity of the painter.

Manak's younger brother Nainsukh took his service with Raja Balwant Singh of Jammu as well.  His entry into the court of Jammu changed the entire mood of the tradition.  Identically like his brother he had enough to offer to the existing traditions of Jammu Kalam.  Observes W. G. Archer, "within this local tradition (of Jammu Kalam) which reaches its height in the portrait of Brij Raj Dev, Nainsukh of Jasrota appears as a sudden mysterious intruder'.  "Intruder" in the sense that he introduced and prevailed upon the situations by introducing his strong and well organised notions about the pictorial values over which he had a masterly grip and command.  His colour schemes and themes were subservient to the Organisation of form and the dimensional planes.  In short, he could be put in the category of formalists and abstractionists who use natural forms for pictorial organisations.  He could be aptly titled as Picasso and Mondrian of the Pahari movement.  His is the marked feeling for geometric structure, strong colou'r and vitalistic line.  His whole approach is architectural.  His pictures are a series of receding and forwarding planes and thus nothing else could be an ideal contribution to the simple flatness of the local style.  Compared to his elder brother Manak, who could be called poetic and romantic, Nainsukh was an aesthete and fundamental.  A typical example of his planned picturisation is his well known painting of Raja Balwant Singh listening to music.  It is a well planned canvas composed with horizontal and vertical divisions of the background and the palace architecture, within which the Raja and the musicians are mere decorations of the broader planning and composition.  Another similar masterpiece is "Raja Balwant Singh of Jammu inspecting a horse".

In earlier career of his Guler days and later on in Jammu his aesthetic and formalistic principles dominated the local tradition, while his occasional short visits, under the patronage of Raja Amrit Pal of Basholi, created a great change in later Basholi period.  Nainshkh seemed to be a dominating influence in Jasrota also, and being so effective in Basholi, Guler, Jammu and Chambha.

The Emergence of Chamba School

In the later part of eighteenth century the Samba principality seemed to have been gaining an edge over the neighbouring Basholi.  This was the period when Basholi became subservient to Chamba politically as well as economically.  This prosperity seemed to be the reason for cultural and artistic rejuvenation, particularly in the fields of architecture and painting.  Nainsukh moved from Guler to Jammu and from Jammu to the court of Raja Amrit Pal of Basholi where he laid deep influence of his own style of miniaturist delicacy.  Later he very ideally created a style that was a subtle fusion of delicate silhouettes and Pahari colour tones.  Thus the element of Aesthetic Romanticism was brought into the Bashoh primitive style.  The style took firm roots in Basholi quickly and very swiftly.  The door wings made in Kangra style were brought by Raja Raj Singh to Chamba when he sacked Basholi palace in 1782.

It is evidenced that Nainsukh would visit Chamba court occasionally, and later on, his sons Ranjha and Nikka were responsible for the artistic prosperity and the establishment of Chamba Kalam, it being an ideal fusion of Kangra-Guier miniaturism, Pahari purity of colour-tones and element of primitive vigour of Basholi forms.  The well-known series of "Rukmini Haran" are a typical example of Chamba School studies.

The subjugation of and predominance over Basholi seems to have been responsible for the emergence of Chamba style as most of the sons of NainsukhRanjha, Nikka and Godhu led the activity of the atelier of Raja Raj Singh of Chamba.  Nikka, the third son of Nainsukh, is known to have founded the style in Chamba court but was later on joined by Ranjha (fourth son) and Godhu the second son.  AR the sons, Kama, Godhu, Nikka and Ranjha were, along with their father, the Guleria painters and were for sometime settled there wherefore they spread their artistic tentacles over Basholi and Chamba, finally settling in Chamba.  This activity was further strengthened by the effective contribution of Harku and Chaioo, the two sons (third generation) of Nikka.

Ranjha, the most talented one, remained in the court of Raj Singh from 1772-94.  These were the years when well-known "Anirudh Usha" series were painted by him.  Intermittently, Ranjha seemed to have been paying commissioned visits to Bashoh where, in the service of Raja Amrit Pal he painted the "Nala-Damayanti" series.  This series, though painted in Basholi was the typical Chamba style, thus having laid its strong influence on Basholi tradition.  In this series there are visibly strong influences of Chamban architectural forms.

Ranjha the fourth son of Nainsuk, was most dynamic in maintaining relations from Chainba with Guler and Basholi as well.  He seems to have been occasionally attending these courts, particularly the court of Raja Bhup Singh of Guler.

A significant collection of Ramayana series was painted by Ranjha during the reign of Raja Ghupendra Pal (1816) of Basholi.  The basic drawings of the series were got made by Ranjha from another Kashmiri artist (not in the family) named Sudarshan.  This gives insight into the methodology and process that must have been going on into the workshops of artists, where there used to be a professional division between masterdrawer and the painter.  Such a tradition of division seems to have been lingering on in the house of the last-known painter, Narayan joo Kachru "Mooratgarh" of Srinagar.  The division of work was between him and his daughter.  She would prepare the drawings and father would complete the miniatures with colours and the brushwork details.

Ranjha's son Gursahai (fourth generation and grandson of Nainsukh) proved a greater genius in drawing and draughtsmanship.  Super-sensitive, erotic and highly passionate themes were the main subjects of his paintings.  His great studies in appreciation of human anatomical form and its highly interpretative formation could have been the work of a genius only.  He thus composed highly sensitive compositions of nude studies.  The "Kokashastra" series also remained one of the chief products of his collections.

Atra, the son of Nikka worked in the court of Raja Raj Singh of Chamba.  The inscription over one of his paintings reads the names of Nikka, Ranjha (Ram Dayal), Chajju, Harku (Nikka's son) and Saudagar (the fifth generation and grandson of Nikka) besides himself, mentioning all being in the atelier of Raja Raj Singh of Chamba.

Ram Dayal, the grandson of Nainsukh worked in the court of Bijai Sen of Mandi.  Kiru - five generations away remained in the court of Patiala. Nainsukh's elder brother Manaku had two sons. namely Khushala and Fattu.  The whole family worked in the court of Raja Goverdhan Chand of Guler till his death in 1773.  They continued with Raja Prakash Chand till 1785, but intermittently leading their projects in other centres like Basholi and Chamba.  The occurrence of financial crisis in the court of Guler led to the migration of Raia Sansar Chand's court at Kangra.  Khushala became the chief painter in the Kangra court and painted a Geet-Govinda series for Maharaj Sansar Chand.

Chetu the great grandson of Khushala (fifth generation) and Sultanu the grandson of Nainsukh, both were the court artists of Raja Shamsher Singh (1826).  Chetu's paintings reached the court of Garhwal, but there are indications to his physical presence in the court of Sudarshan Shah of Tehri Garhwal, where he established the Garhwal School of Pahari movement.

The other important centres of Pahari movement led and established were Tira Sujanpur, Mandis Patiala (a non Himachal centre) and Kulu.  The Kulu style is considered to be an ideal amalgam of folk and Kashmir style.  Some of the fourth generation Rainas migrated to Kulu in the second decade of the eighteenth century.

Surprisingly, the six generations of Pandit Seu Raina produced about forty-six children, and all of them artists who penetrated their genius very deep into the mileu of all Himachal principalities, thus embedding the whole treasure-accumulation of four thousand years into their new home of outer Himalayas.  It needs yet another treatise to keep their track in all the courts and cultural centres of the region.

The essence of cultural treasure of Himachal Pahari is the decoctant of human experience accumulated through the constant in-flux and out-flux of human migrations and re-migration along with the shores of Mediterranean, the Tigris Euphratic waters and the settlements which thrived along the shores of Ganga, Yamuna, Sindhu and Saraswati.

It has been time-and-again that this forward human leap had to be preceded by a mighty exodus of civilised races.  Thus, the history in this respect, has been repeating itself; and I think to complete the circle the history has again pushed us on the path of exodus to take once again a great leap forward as we did in the recent past.

I think, this is the only call (or should I call it NAAD) of the hour for those who migrated due to the brutal convulsions of our History.


1. Wushkar Baroque : Wushkar, a well known village in Baramulla (Kashmir) on the bank of Vitasta (Kashmiri name of jehlam river) where famous Buddhist Viharas had a massive facade of terracotta creations depicting Bhudha's life.  The style, now internationally known after the name of the village, is the culmination of Gandhara-Mathura style rendered with sensitive details (linear) of expression and decoration.

2. The name Shivji Raina is even now a common name amongst Kashmiri Pandits.  Phonologically, in Himachal Pahari Parlance 'Shiv' has changed into 'Seu'.

3. The pilgrimage registers kept by Pandas at Haridwar, Kurukhestra and Pehowa do confirm and state as "Pandit Seu Raina of Guler"

4. First discoverers W. G. Archer and Percy Brown.

5. Though in most inhospitable conditions, this biggest collection now lies in the Dogra art Gallery of Jammu.  Before its acquisition, this valuable collection remained as the personal property of one Pahda Kunj Lal, a descendent of the royal physicians of Basholi Rajas.  It was in 1956 that a devastating fire in Basholi destroyed property of Hakim Pahda Kunj Lal and thus he was compelled by circumstances to present the sizeable collection to the then Chief Minister of the State, Bakshi Ghulam Mohammed who came to visit the town.  This valued collection was loaned by the Chief Minister for an exhibition of Festival of Kashmir, of which myself and reputed Kashmir poet late Pandit Dinanath 'Nadim' were the organisers.  I felt that this treasure should remain a national treasure rather that a personal property.  Pandit 'Nadim' and myself posed the problem to the then Education Minister late Mr. G. M. Sadiq who sorted out the matter with the Chief Minister and thus this valuable collection became the national property.

6. Chandigarh Museum and Indian Museum Calcutta.

7. "Arts of India"- Victoria and Albert Museum.

8. This led to the foundation of Chamba Scho6l.
9.  God is achieved not through austerities but through love.
10. "Notes on Pahari Painting" by Gopi Krishna Kanoria (Rupa Lekha, AIFACS)
11. Mannakuchitrakarta should be taken as one word in which Manaku  is the principal and is its agent denoting the gender.  Its feminine would be chitrakartee

12. Collection of Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

13. Now the door-wings are in the collection of Bohri Singh Museum, Chamba.

14. 1764-94, rule of Raja Raj Singh of Chamba.

15.  Bohri Singh Museum, Chamba.

16. Dr. Karan Singh Collection.

17. Dr. Karan Singh Collection.  Collection: Bohri Singh Museum of Chamba and the Punjab Museum, Chandigarh.

18. "Kangra-Artists", Art and Letters, 1995, Vol.  YXIX, No. I.

19. Collection: Bharat Kala Bhawan, Banaras.  'The Artist of the so-called Ranjha-Ramayana drawings" J. R. A. S., vol.  XXI, No. 9/3-4,1979.

20. In Kashmir, Papier-Mache professionals are still divided as khuhunmore and Nakash.  The original leykhan = leykhun in Kashmiri in which by practice becomes silent.  So leykhan (Hindi) > leykhun > suhun

21. "N. G. Mehta collection" by Khandalwala.

22. The "Ramayana Series", "The rape of Yadav women", the "Birth of Krishna" from Bhagwat folio and "Rukmini Parinaya"- all in the collection of Chandigarh Museum.

23. Godhu the second son of Nainsukh along with uncles Fatu and Khushala, took the Kangra influence in the principality.

24. Ram Dayal the great grandson of Nainsukh worked in the court of Raja Bijay Singh (1851) of Mandi.

25. The famous Shangri Ramayana Series have been painted in this Kalam.

26. For the profound in-depth and crisscross forward movement of human culture I refer to great and classic book titled 'The Martyrdom of Man' authored by Winwood Read, and first published a century ago.



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