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Information Digest
Volume 1
Reprint Edition March 2001

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Lalla-Ded Educational and Welfare Trust

Table of Contents

Lalla-Ded Educational Trust
Project Zaan
Information Digest - Vol. 1


The Land & the People

Birth of Kasmira (Kashmir) - Legend

According to the Nilamata Purana, the land of Kasmira was occupied for 6  Manvantaras since the beginning of the Kalpa, by a vast lake, six yojanas long and  three yojanas wide, called Satisara. In the 7th Manvantara, the water of the lake  was drained off through an outlet made with plough by Ananta at the order of  Vishnu, who along with other gods and goddesses had come there to kill the demon  Jalodbhava - invincible in waters. The geological observations made in recent  times corroborate the assertion made in the Nilamata. M.B.Pithawala in his  “Kashmir, Its Geology & Geography” and G.E.L.Carter in his “Stone Age in Kashmir”  have supported this theory of the prehistoric great lake in Kasmira.

The name Kasmira (Kashmir)

The Nilamata Purana gives ‘Kasmira’ as the name of the valley, which is still  known as Kashmir throughout the world and is called by the Kashmiris in their  own language, as ‘Kashir’.


Jammu & Kashmir, the Northern-most State of India is situated between 73deg-26’ E  & 80deg-30’ E Longitudes and 32deg- 17’ N & 36deg-58’ N Latitudes.


Total area of Jammu & Kashmir State is 2,22,236 Sq. Kms. out of which 78114 Sq.  Kms. are under illegal occupation of Pakistan, 5180 Sq. Kms. are illegally  handed over by Pakistan to China and 37555 Sq. Kms. are under illegal occupation of  China.

Other Information

Divisions (Post 1947) 1. Jammu.  2. Kashmir.  3. Ladakh.
Capitals Summer - Srinagar.    Winter - Jammu
Districts Anantnaag, Badgam, Baramulla, Doda, Jammu, Kargil, Kathua, Kupwara, Leh, Pulwama, Poonch, Rajauri, Srinagar, Udhampur.
Prominent Mountains Himalayan Range - Peer Panjal, Karakoram, Hindu  Kush.
Main Rivers  Sindh (Indus) - Ladakh.
Jhelum (Vitasta) - Kashmir valley.
Kishenganga - Kashmir valley.
Chenab - Jammu.
Borders of undivided Kashmir (with foreign countries) 640 Kms. with Sinkiang, 720 Kms. with Tibet, 1120 Kms. with Pakistan and 256  Kms. with Afganistan.
Principal languages Kashmiri, Dogri, Pahari, Balti, Ladakhi, Punjabi,  Gujari, Dardi and Urdu as official language.
Population (1989) 77,18,700 (This excludes the population of areas under  unlawful occupation of Pakistan and China.
Religion-wise breakup of population (1981 Census) Muslims ~ 64.19 %,  Hindus ~ 32.24 % Sikhs ~ 2.23 %,  Buddhists ~ 1.16 % Christians ~ 0.14 %.

General description of the Valley

The Valley of Kashmir is surrounded by mountains varied in f.mp3, height and  colour. To the East of Valley stands H.mp3ukh at 5150 Mtr. height. To  further  South is Mahadev and lofty ranges of Gwasha Brari (Ht. 5425 M). The peak of  Amarnath  (Ht. 5280 M) lies in this area. On South-West is Pir Panjal range with peaks  4500 M high. To the North are Korakoram and the Himalayas. Nanga Parbat  (Ht.7980 M) lies here. It is the 5th highest peak in the world. K2, the second highest  peak in the world, lies in the Pakistan occupied Kashmir. The valley of Kashmir  is  approximately 134 Kms. in length and 32 to 40 Kms. in width.  Most of its  length is traversed by a navigable river called  Jhelum (Vitasta).  Srinagar  city is approximately 1585 Mtrs. above mean sea level.

The entire valley mountain slopes, smaller valleys at varying heights, meadows,  glaciers, lakes, brooks and springs make it a paradise, unique in the world.  Some world famous  spots of tourist interest are:  Pahalgam, Gulmarg, Sonamarg,  Kokar Naag, Veri Naag, Dal Lake, Wular Lake, Anchar Lake, Gangabal, Mughal  Gardens, Pari Mahal, Dachhi Gaam Rakh etc.

Brief description of some prominent spots

Pahalgam: This world famous tourist spot is situated at the confluence of river  Liddar and Sheshnag stream, 96 kms. away from Srinagar. Its altitude is 2130  Mtrs above sea level. There are cool, shaded meadows all around. A Shiva temple  (Mamleshwar), believed to be the oldest (8th century) is situated at village  Mamal, 8 kms. from here.

Gulmarg: A famous tourist spot and the venue of winter sports (skiing), Gulmarg  is one of the highest green golf courses in the  world. It is 56 kms. away from  Srinagar at an altitude of 2730 mtrs. above sea level. Gulmarg is like a cup  shaped meadow of flowers with lush green turf and surrounded by pine trees with  snow capped peaks overlooking it. Nangaparbat can be viewed from here on a clear  day.

Sonamarg: Situated at an altitude of 3000 mtrs., Sonamarg is 87 kms. from  Srinagar. It is the last halt on the valley side for a drive to Kargil/Leh through  Zojila pass. Sonamarg is a vast meadow and the starting point for going to  Vishnasar, Krishnasar, Gadsar, Satsar lakes and Amar Nath Cave via Baltal. River  Sindh which abounds in Trout and Mahaseer fish, meanders along here.

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