Nur-ud-Din, known as Nunda Resh in veneration, was a
great saint-poet. He was one of the twin stars of
medieval Kashmir along with Lalla-Ded, with whom he
shared the intensity of mystic experience and was
next only to her as a Kashmiri poet. His poetry has
great respect among the common people.
poetry of Nund Rishi is t.mp3ed ‘Shruk’. The
Shruks were collected and written down in 19th
century in different ‘Rishi Namas’. We hardly
find Persian words in his Shruks. In his poetry, we
see words borrowed from Sanskrit, like Gian Dhyana,
Krodha, Bhag, Lobha, Bandhana etc. Sheikh
Nur-ud-Din’s Shruks represent the medieval aspect
of the Kashmiri language. His usage of words, taken
originally from the Sanskrit language, can shed lot
of light on the state of Kashmiri language
prevailing at that time.
progressive and one of the most popular Kashmiri
poet, Dina Nath Nadim was born in 1916. He
lost his father Pandit Shankar Kaul when he was only
eight years old. Nadim’s mother had a significant
influence on his growth who would recite Vakhs of
Lalla Ded and Lilas of other poets. He passed B.A.
in 1940 and got B.Ed. degree in 1943.
Sahib was influenced by poets - Iqbal, Chakbast and
Josh. He started writing in English when he was 17
years old. He wrote his first Kashmiri nazm - Maaj
Kasheer - Zagat Zanani Bhavani Maaj Panani in 1940.
Between 1938 and 1946, he wrote mainly in Urdu.
Sahib started his career as a school teacher in
‘New Era’ in 1937. He was founder member of
Hindu High School. His most important phase of life
started in 1947 when Pakistan instigated invasion on
Kashmir. The writers, poets and other artists f.mp3ed
‘National Cultural Front’. He was one of the
leading organisers of the new cultural movement that
spear-headed Kashmir’s literary renaissance. Since
then, till his death, Nadim Sahib remained in fore
front in all educational and cultural fields. Name
any association of this period, he was either
secretary or cha.mp3an. He was Principal, Lalla Ded
Memorial High School, Secretary, Writers
Association, Folk Theatre, Peace Committee etc. and
also elected member of Sahitya Akademy and J&K
Sahib was the most progressive and prominent poet of
Kashmir. He restored the Kashmiri language to its
pristine glory. He was poet of the people. He always
showed great concern for down-trodden. In his short
stories ‘Jawabi Card’ and ‘Sheen Peto Peto’,
he presented his keen concern for trampled down,
beautifully and sensitively.
Sahib introduced Sonnet and Blank Verse in Kashmiri.
His first blank verse poem Bu Geva Na Az (I will not
sing today) was published in 1950. This poetic f.mp3
caught the imagination of Kashmiris. Nadim Sahib
gifted opera to Kashmiris. His first opera in
Kashmiri Bombur Ta Yemberzal (The Bumble bee and the
Narcissus) which depicted ultimate triumph of good
over evil, was written in 1953. This opera was an
instant success. The opera was shown to Marshal
Bulganian and Khruschev in 1956 when they came to
Kashmir. It is this opera which earned him Soviet
and Nehru Award in 1971. He later wrote many operas
which included Heemal Nagirai, Shihul Kul, Vitasta,
Neki ta Badi etc.
most significant poet of the period is Nadim Sahib.
He infused poetry with vigour and masculinity. His
poetry collection Shihul Kul won him Sahitya Akademi
Award in 1987. His most famous poems are Irada, Bu
Geva Na Az, Swo Viz, Son Vatan, Subadam, Lakhchun,
Aadanuk Posh, Dal Hanzni Hund Vatsun etc. But to him
ME CHHAM AASH PAGAHUCH remained most dear and
near to his heart. About this poem, he said, “It
expresses my cherished faith, my values, my lust for
peace. To me, to my family and to my people -
‘Morning’ - remains reliance and support.”
Nadim died in 1988. It will not be wrong to call the
period from 1848 to 1988, the age of Nadim - Nadim
Era. His contemporaries were not only influenced by
Nadim Sahib but also inspired to write in his vein.
Some of them went to the extent of copying his style
while some adopted his themes in their peoms.
Krishen Joo Razdan was born in Vanpoh, Anantnaag in
1850. He was the only son of his father Pandit
Ganesh Raina. In books, Razdan Sahib is also called
Rajanak - Guide or Raza Darbari. He was called so,
perhaps because of Maharaja Pratap Singh’s deep
and close rapport with him. Maharaja Pratap Singh
was a great devotee of Razdan Sahib. The Maharaja
used to come for his darshan twice a year in Spring
and in Autumn on the occassion of Darbar move.
sahib was one of the most famous ‘bhakti poet’
who wrote delectable bhajans in ‘Lila’ f.mp3 in
praise of Lord Shiva and Lord Krishna. Among his
impressive works are Shiv Lagan, Shiv Parinay and
Harihar Kalyan. Though a Shaivite by faith, he has
yet composed songs in praise of other devas. His
first poem Shiv Parinay was published by Royal
Asiatic Society of Bengal in six different volumes
in Devanagari script.
Sahib was a Sanskrit scholar of repute and had
command on Persian also. He also wrote Lilas in
Hindi. He had love for music and used to play sitar.
His poetry is full of music. His description of
nature and local colours, has cooling and refreshing
effect. He was mast.mp3ind in handling of language
and was singer of love. He was great yogi and sadak
of his time. He favoured bhoga (indulgence) as
against tyaga (renunciation). He had great influence
of Lalla-Ded and Nuda Rishi. Meditation, yoga and
knowledge, is the essence of his poetry. In
Shivratri Mahima, he tells us the real meaning of
Shivratri. He has written many Leelas describing
different gods and devatas.
of his songs gained popularity among common masses
and have become part and parcel of Kashmir folk
literature like :
in 1936, Shri Saqi was a prominent Kashmiri poet,
scholar and folk-lorist. He was awarded Padama Shri
for his services to Kashmiri language and
literature. He received Sahitya Akademy Award in
1981 for his book of verses ‘Mana Sar’.
Saqi belonged to village Mahanoor of Chadoora tehsil
of Kashmir. He was one of the youngest poets of his
village to recite poems in the literary meetings of
Cultural Front during 1950’s. Starting his carrer
from the village level, he worked on ‘Kashur
Dictionary’ and ‘Urdu Kashmiri Farhang’ and
later edited the Kashmiri Encyclopaedia,
published by J&K Akademy of Art, Culture &
Languages. In between, he also served Radio Kashmir,
Srinagar for broadcasting Kashmiri language
programme meant for f.mp3ers. His book titled
‘Neeri Nagma’ containing 100 Qudrains (Rubayees),
several poems, gazals and verses is well known. He
collected numerous folk songs and edited several
Kashmiri folk song volumes published by the State
Akademy including two volumes of Kashmiri mystic
poetry known as ‘Sufi Shairi’. He also compiled
authentic Shrukhs of Nund Reshi entitled
Kulyat-e-Sheikh-Ul-Alam. His book ‘Aagar Naib’
published in 1998, contains his prominent articles
on Kashmiriology, wherein he has mentioned the
sources of discovering past of Kashmir. He
breathed his last on 21.5.1999 at Delhi.
Saqi will always be remembered for his immense
contribution to Kashmiri language and literature as
a poet, scholar, folk-lorist and an expert on