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Information Digest
Volume 2
January 2001

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Lalla-Ded Educational and Welfare Trust

Table of Contents

Lalla-Ded Educational Trust
Project Zaan
Information Digest - Vol. 2


Literature & Language

Sheikh Nur-ud-Din

Sheikh Nur-ud-Din, known as Nunda Resh in veneration, was a great saint-poet. He was one of the twin stars of medieval Kashmir along with Lalla-Ded, with whom he shared the intensity of mystic experience and was next only to her as a Kashmiri poet. His poetry has great respect among the common people.

The poetry of Nund Rishi is t.mp3ed ‘Shruk’. The Shruks  were collected and written down in 19th century in different ‘Rishi Namas’. We hardly find Persian words in his Shruks. In his poetry, we see words borrowed from Sanskrit, like Gian Dhyana, Krodha, Bhag, Lobha, Bandhana etc. Sheikh Nur-ud-Din’s Shruks represent the medieval aspect of the Kashmiri language. His usage of words, taken originally from the Sanskrit language, can shed lot of light on the state of Kashmiri language prevailing at that time.

Dina Nath Nadim

A progressive and one of the most popular Kashmiri poet, Dina Nath Nadim was born in 1916.  He lost his father Pandit Shankar Kaul when he was only eight years old. Nadim’s mother had a significant influence on his growth who would recite Vakhs of Lalla Ded and Lilas of other poets. He passed B.A. in 1940 and got B.Ed. degree in 1943.

Nadim Sahib was influenced by poets - Iqbal, Chakbast and Josh. He started writing in English when he was 17 years old. He wrote his first Kashmiri nazm - Maaj Kasheer - Zagat Zanani Bhavani Maaj Panani in 1940. Between 1938 and 1946, he wrote mainly in Urdu.

Nadim Sahib started his career as a school teacher in ‘New Era’ in 1937. He was founder member of Hindu High School. His most important phase of life started in 1947 when Pakistan instigated invasion on Kashmir. The writers, poets and other artists f.mp3ed ‘National Cultural Front’. He was one of the leading organisers of the new cultural movement that spear-headed Kashmir’s literary renaissance. Since then, till his death, Nadim Sahib remained in fore front in all educational and cultural fields. Name any association of this period, he was either secretary or cha.mp3an. He was Principal, Lalla Ded Memorial High School, Secretary, Writers Association, Folk Theatre, Peace Committee etc. and also elected member of Sahitya Akademy and J&K Akademy.

Nadim Sahib was the most progressive and prominent poet of Kashmir. He restored the Kashmiri language to its pristine glory. He was poet of the people. He always showed great concern for down-trodden. In his short stories ‘Jawabi Card’ and ‘Sheen Peto Peto’, he presented his keen concern for trampled down, beautifully and sensitively.

Nadim Sahib introduced Sonnet and Blank Verse in Kashmiri. His first blank verse poem Bu Geva Na Az (I will not sing today) was published in 1950. This poetic f.mp3 caught the imagination of Kashmiris. Nadim Sahib gifted opera to Kashmiris. His first opera in Kashmiri Bombur Ta Yemberzal (The Bumble bee and the Narcissus) which depicted ultimate triumph of good over evil, was written in 1953. This opera was an instant success. The opera was shown to Marshal Bulganian and Khruschev in 1956 when they came to Kashmir. It is this opera which earned him Soviet and Nehru Award in 1971. He later wrote many operas which included Heemal Nagirai, Shihul Kul, Vitasta, Neki ta Badi etc.

The most significant poet of the period is Nadim Sahib. He infused poetry with vigour and masculinity. His poetry collection Shihul Kul won him Sahitya Akademi Award in 1987. His most famous poems are Irada, Bu Geva Na Az, Swo Viz, Son Vatan, Subadam, Lakhchun, Aadanuk Posh, Dal Hanzni Hund Vatsun etc. But to him ME CHHAM AASH PAGAHUCH  remained most dear and near to his heart. About this poem, he said, “It expresses my cherished faith, my values, my lust for peace. To me, to my family and to my people - ‘Morning’ - remains reliance and support.”

Shri Nadim died in 1988. It will not be wrong to call the period from 1848 to 1988, the age of Nadim - Nadim Era. His contemporaries were not only influenced by Nadim Sahib but also inspired to write in his vein. Some of them went to the extent of copying his style while some adopted his themes in their peoms.

Krishen Joo Razdan

Pandit Krishen Joo Razdan was born in Vanpoh, Anantnaag in 1850. He was the only son of his father Pandit Ganesh Raina. In books, Razdan Sahib is also called Rajanak - Guide or Raza Darbari. He was called so, perhaps because of Maharaja Pratap Singh’s deep and close rapport with him. Maharaja Pratap Singh was a great devotee of Razdan Sahib. The Maharaja used to come for his darshan twice a year in Spring and in Autumn on the occassion of Darbar move.

Razdan sahib was one of the most famous ‘bhakti poet’ who wrote delectable bhajans in ‘Lila’ f.mp3 in praise of Lord Shiva and Lord Krishna. Among his impressive works are Shiv Lagan, Shiv Parinay and Harihar Kalyan. Though a Shaivite by faith, he has yet composed songs in praise of other devas. His first poem Shiv Parinay was published by Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal in six different volumes in Devanagari script.

Razdan Sahib was a Sanskrit scholar of repute and had command on Persian also. He also wrote Lilas in Hindi. He had love for music and used to play sitar. His poetry is full of music. His description of nature and local colours, has cooling and refreshing effect. He was mast.mp3ind in handling of language and was singer of love. He was great yogi and sadak of his time. He favoured bhoga (indulgence) as against tyaga (renunciation). He had great influence of Lalla-Ded and Nuda Rishi. Meditation, yoga and knowledge, is the essence of his poetry. In Shivratri Mahima, he tells us the real meaning of Shivratri. He has written many Leelas describing different gods and devatas.

Some of his songs gained popularity among common masses and have become part and parcel of Kashmir folk literature like :

Moti Lal Saqi

Born in 1936, Shri Saqi was a prominent Kashmiri poet, scholar and folk-lorist. He was awarded Padama Shri for his services to Kashmiri language and literature. He received Sahitya Akademy Award in 1981 for his book of verses ‘Mana Sar’.

Shri Saqi belonged to village Mahanoor of Chadoora tehsil of Kashmir. He was one of the youngest poets of his village to recite poems in the literary meetings of Cultural Front during 1950’s. Starting his carrer from the village level, he worked on ‘Kashur Dictionary’ and ‘Urdu Kashmiri Farhang’ and later edited  the Kashmiri Encyclopaedia, published by J&K Akademy of Art, Culture & Languages. In between, he also served Radio Kashmir, Srinagar for broadcasting Kashmiri language programme meant for f.mp3ers. His book titled ‘Neeri Nagma’ containing 100 Qudrains (Rubayees), several poems, gazals and verses is well known. He collected numerous folk songs and edited several Kashmiri folk song volumes published by the State Akademy including two volumes of Kashmiri mystic poetry known as ‘Sufi Shairi’. He also compiled authentic Shrukhs  of Nund Reshi entitled Kulyat-e-Sheikh-Ul-Alam. His book ‘Aagar Naib’ published in 1998, contains his prominent articles on Kashmiriology, wherein he has mentioned the sources of discovering past of Kashmir. He  breathed his last on 21.5.1999 at Delhi.

Shri Saqi will always be remembered for his immense contribution to Kashmiri language and literature as a poet, scholar, folk-lorist and an expert on Kashmiriology.

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